SEO stands for ‘search engine optimisation’. You are undertaking SEO when you try and rank a page higher in the search engines, with the ultimate objective being to increase organic (“free”) traffic to your website.
Unfortunately, there aren’t many universities who teach SEO as a standalone course – probably because the goalposts are being moved all the time by Google, meaning a degree could quickly become outdated. You could apply for a job at an agency and work your way up, and/or take one of the many great online courses on the topic.
On-page SEO refers to tactics utilized on or within a page to assist it in ranking higher in the search engine. On-page SEO includes both content and the HTML source code of a page (image optimization, keyword optimization, Schema markup, and more), but not external links and other external signals.
Backlinks are hyperlinks to another web page. Google and other search engines assign a value to backlinks when determining if a page should rank. It’s for this reason that SEO experts will try and build backlinks to your website as part of your overall SEO strategy.
Anchor text is the clickable text part of a backlink. Anchor text informs the user and search engines what the destination page is about.
Anywhere from a few weeks to a couple of years depending on the age of your website, the size of your project, allocated resources and keyword difficulty. Each SEO campaign is weighted on an individual merit.
This can be anywhere between 2 weeks and 3 months, depending on how quick Google finds the backlink, how good the backlink is and how competitive your niche is.
Having an HTTPS secure certified website will give you a ranking boost for an e-commerce website. The impact is very low, though.